Anthropometrics And Social Demographic Characteristics
Height and weight were measured to the nearest 0.1cm and 0.1kg using electronic scales and stadiometer at baseline. Body mass index was calculated . The participants information of education history, work status/types, current smoking and concomitant medication usage were collected by the questionnaire at baseline.
Does Knee Surgery Reduce Depression
In another study , researchers looked at the symptoms of depression before and after knee replacement surgery in 133 people.
Around 23 percent said they had symptoms of depression before surgery, but 12 months later, this figure was down to about 12 percent.
Those who had symptoms of depression were less satisfied with their surgical outcomes than those who did not have depression. This was true whether the symptoms were present before or after surgery.
If you have symptoms of depression that last longer than 3 weeks after surgery, speak to your doctor. They can help you make a plan to manage the symptoms.
If you have thoughts of harming yourself or others at any time, call 911 immediately and seek emergency medical attention.
Tips For Managing Insomnia
There are various ways of relieving insomnia, including medical treatments and home remedies.
With your doctors permission, you may be able to take over-the-counter sleep aids, such as melatonin or diphenhydramine .
Other steps you can take to get better sleep after surgery include:
- avoiding stimulants before bedtime, such as caffeine, heavy meals, and nicotine
- doing something relaxing before bed, such as reading, writing in a journal, or listening to soft music
- creating an environment that promotes sleep by dimming the lights, turning off any electronics, and keeping the room dark
Talk to your doctor if you have trouble sleeping at night. Some causes are preventable, such as extreme pain or discomfort related to your surgery. Your doctor may be able to help you find a suitable solution.
Prescription medications for sleep, such as zolpidem , are also available. However, doctors dont usually prescribe them as a first-line treatment.
- interest in doing daily tasks and activities you usually enjoy
Depression isnt uncommon after knee replacement.
In one small , around half of the people who underwent knee replacement surgery said they had feelings of depression before leaving the hospital. Females were more likely than men to report depression.
The symptoms seemed to be most pronounced about 3 days after the operation.
Post-operative depression often results in:
- changes in appetite
- feelings of sadness about your state of health
Don’t Miss: Is It Painful To Cut Your Wrist
The Knee Joint What Is It And How Does It Work
The knee joint comes under the classification of synovial joints.
These joints are intended to provide a wide range of movement and flexibility needed in certain areas of the body, particularly the limbs.
The knee joint is the largest and most complicated joint of the body.
It comprises of two sub joints, one larger one between the condyles of the thigh bone femur and the leg bone tibia, and a small gliding one between the circular bone patella and the femur.
Attached to the articular surfaces of the bones are hyaline cartilages called the menisci, which are meant to provide a smooth frictionless surface for the bones to move upon.
Surrounding the joint is a capsule, which contains a special kind of fluid called the synovial fluid.
This fluid bathes the structures inside the capsule, provides them nourishment, keeps them lubricated, acts as a shock absorber and contains antibodies to fight pathogens.
Outside the capsule are structures known as ligaments which are important for the structural integrity and support.
The knee joint has 4 important ligaments, which are the Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Posterior Cruciate Ligament, Medial Collateral Ligament, and Lateral Collateral Ligament.
The muscles and their tendon attachment s on the joint are also important in this regard, and their contractions cause movements around the joint.
Why Does Stress And Anxiety Cause Joint Pain
Life is full of stressful situations. You may feel stress over meeting a deadline, managing finances, or even something as simple as getting the kids out the door in the mornings .
According to the Anxiety and Depression Association of America, Seven out of ten adults in the United States say they experience stress or anxiety daily, and most say it interferes at least moderately with their lives.
Stress has become such a part of daily life that many people dont realize its a problem until symptoms become unbearable, and sometimes, irreversible.
Don’t Miss: Is Stomach Pain A Sign Of Pregnancy
Gerd And Ibs Secondary To Knee Pain
At first glance, you might be wondering how Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome can be connected secondary to Knee Pain.
Heres the deal fellow veterans: If you take over-the-counter or prescription medications to manage symptoms of your service connected conditions, youre eligible for secondary service connection if those medications cause or make other conditions worse.
For example, you might be taking Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs to manage symptoms of your service connected Knee Pain.
Common side effects of long-term use of NSAIDsinclude GERD and IBS, and thus, you can be service connected for GERD secondary to Knee Pain or IBS secondary to Knee Pain.
What Are The Causes And Remedies Of Knee Pain
The pain in the knee region can occur due to diseases or conditions that involve the soft tissues, bones that are seen near the knee joint.
It can be caused due to injury to a ligament or cartilage.
- Minor injuries that cause strain or sprain to the knee can also cause the development of pain in the knee.
- Low level of activity is another main reason for the development of knee pain. Sitting for long hours without any physical movement can lead to the development of pain.
- With an increase in age, the movement of the knee will involve a great amount of friction between the muscle and cartilages. This can lead to the development of pain in the knee region.
- A drop in the surrounding temperatures can also lead to the development of pain in the region of the knees.
If your knee pain is minor, then you can control the condition by self-care measures like performing physical therapy and wearing knee braces.
*All individuals are unique. Your results can and will vary.
If the condition of knee pain is severe, then you may have to opt for surgery.
When you feel pain, apply ice on the affected area.
At first, you can apply it for 15 minutes every hour.
When the pain subsides, you can then apply it for 15 minutes once every 4 hours.
To avoid getting frostbite, you can place a towel over your knees and then place ice over it.
Surgical repair is also available to treat knee pain.
A total replacement of the knee joint will be essential if the condition is severe.
Recommended Reading: Can Neck Pain Cause Nausea
What’s The Best Way To Manage Pain And Depression
Team up with a pain specialist or even your family doctor to create a treatment plan. When chronic pain and depression are combined, the need to work with a doctor is even greater.
As you develop a plan, keep in mind that the ideal pain management plan will be will have many parts.
There are resources that can help you, such as:
- The American Chronic Pain Association
- The American Pain Foundation
- The Academy of Cognitive Therapy
Stay committed to the plan until you feel in control of your pain and depression and can fully live your life and do the things you enjoy.
Find a cognitive therapist near you with experience treating chronic pain. The above groups can help you find one.
Fatigue Or Consistent Lower Energy Levels
Fatigue is a common symptom of depression. Occasionally we all experience lower energy levels and can feel sluggish in the morning, hoping to stay in bed and watch TV instead of going to work.
While we often believe exhaustion stems from stress, depression can also cause fatigue. However, unlike everyday fatigue, depression-related fatigue can also cause concentration problems, feelings of irritability, and apathy.
Dr. Maurizio Fava , Director of the Clinical Research Program at Bostons Massachusetts General Hospital, points out that depressed individuals often experience nonrestorative sleep, meaning that they feel sluggish even after getting a full night of rest.
However, because many physical illnesses, like infections and viruses, can also cause fatigue, it can be challenging to discern whether or not the exhaustion is related to depression.
One way to tell: While everyday fatigue is a sign of this mental illness, other symptoms like sadness, feeling hopeless, and anhedonia may also be present when you are depressed.
Glutamate And Its Receptor Subtypes
In conclusion, neuroplasticity crucially affects the occurrence and development of chronic pain and depression and may involve the same brain structures, neurotransmitters, and signaling pathways. Through exploring the common neuroplasticity changes of these two disorders, new targeted therapeutic drugs should be able to be developed or these disorders’ common targets should be able to be identified for precise treatment of chronic pain-induced depression, which will surely contribute to the improvement of life quality and prognosis in patients suffering from these disorders.
Downward Spiral Of Pain And Depression
Unfortunately, this situation can lead to a downward physical and emotional spiral. Over time, a person may feel that pain is controlling his or her life, leading to major depression. Once in this depressed state, the person may feel incapable of changing the situation even if possible treatments or options for positive action exist.
For this reason, it is important for people experiencing chronic pain and depression to seek the help of appropriate healthcare professionals who have special training in chronic pain .
Recommended Reading: Can Neck Pain Cause Fever
Dont Force Happiness On Yourself
If dwelling on your pain or other arthritis symptoms drives you to depression, trying to convince yourself that things arent that bad sounds like a good idea. But it could backfire, says Cheryl Crow, a rheumatoid arthritis patient who has dealt with anxiety and postpartum depression. Instead, learning to accept what life is like with arthritis could improve your mindset.
Acceptance is different from resignation, she says. You dont say, Im resigned to my fate and its never going to get better, you just accept that thats where you are .
Get Out There And Get Some Vitamin D
The sunshine vitamin is good for bone and joint health, and it can help with depression.
On spring and summer days, getting 15 minutes of warm sun on bare skin, such as arms, legs and face will give you your daily dose.
Also Check: Where To Place Tens Unit Pads For Carpal Tunnel
Incorporating Physical Symptoms Into Treatment Goals
As with any general medical disorder, full remission should be the long-range objective in the treatment of mood disorders. Many physicians consider a patient to be in remission from depression when his or her acute emotional symptoms have abated, but residual symptoms, including physical symptoms, increase the likelihood of relapse. Physicians should move beyond simple treatment of acute symptoms to a model in which patients are treated until full remission is achieved a virtually asymptomatic state rather than simple response should be the ultimate goal of therapy. Many patients treated with antidepressants fail to achieve full remission, and the costs, both social and economic, of relapse or residual symptoms are high.
Numerous studies have shown that patients with major depression who have residual symptoms after treatment have higher relapse rates and they relapse earlier than do those without residual symptoms. In fact, relapse rates are 3 times higher in individuals who have residual symptoms after they have achieved significant improvement than in individuals with no residual symptoms. One may infer, then, that the likelihood of relapse is significantly reduced in patients who attain asymptomatic remission.
The Relation of Residual Symptoms to Relapse in Depressiona,b
Dont Let Stress Build Up
Lets face it, stress is pretty unavoidable in hectic lives. Add arthritis to the mix of potential worries such as money, work and relationships, and stress is bound to rear its ugly head from time to time.
Its important to know what really puts pressure on you. Think about ways to avoid those situations occurring in the first place, and the best ways of dealing with them if they do. Heres a good page on Minds website about stress.
Recommended Reading: Does Lidocaine Work For Nerve Pain
Causes And Treatment Of Psychosomatic Pain
Medically Reviewed By: Wendy Boring-Bray, DBH, LPC
Derived from “psyche” and “soma” , psychosomatic refers to real physical symptoms that are caused by the mind. For example, those who experience depression often feel physical symptoms such as aches and pains, headaches, and even stomach aches. These physical symptoms can manifest for several reasons and may be completely separate from their normal causes. We will dive deeper into this topic as we explore these types of pains.
Is Pain Something I Should Worry About?
If aches and pains are making it hard for you to go about your day or are persistent and causing you discomfort, you should always reach out to your doctor to see if there is anything you can do about it. If you find your pain is not connected to anything going on inside or outside your body, there is no reason to panic. Many people deal with pain that is a result of something mental rather than physical. No matter what you are dealing with, you are not alone and there are plenty of resources out there that can help you with all aspects of these pains. Curious as to how it works? Let’s dive into the subject.
What Is Psychosomatic Pain?
What Is Hypochondria and How Does It Differ From Psychosomatic Pain?
Those with psychosomatic pain, however, exhibit true physical symptoms that make it difficult to get through the day. Their pain is very real, but the source may be unidentifiable to them.
What Are Some Common Psychosomatic Symptoms?
Psychological Impact Of Oa
People with OA often suffer from depression and anxiety, exacerbated by a lack of self-efficacy and catastrophisation – a tendency to focus on the negative aspects of an experience.
The prevalence of depression in the general older population is estimated to be between 7% and 17% in community-dwelling adults with OA, it is 20% . The likelihood of depression is increased by numerous factors that affect older people with greater frequency, such as concurrent health problems, bereavement and social isolation. The severity of depression in OA is affected by both the degree of pain and physical disability .
It is often difficult to disentangle the relationship between depression and pain. A recent study of ageing found that the presence of one made the other more likely to develop . Pain also makes disability and fatigue more likely, which in turn make depression more likely and can lead to worsening pain . Fatigue and depression are also linked to poor sleep . The reciprocity of these relationships is not surprising given that long-term pain, inflammation and depression share a number of neurobiological features, including increased levels of central nervous system pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 .
BOX 3. AN EXAMPLE OF CATASTROPHISATION
Imagine you have come home from work, tired and stressed. Your partner is out in the rainy dark night, walking the dog. You run a warm bath, put some music on and relax.
Recommended Reading: Does Lidocaine Work For Nerve Pain
Depression And Anxiety Secondary To Knee Pain
According to the Mayo Clinic, Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest.
Clinical Depression is most often diagnosed as Major Depressive Disorder , and it affects how you feel, think, and behave and can lead to a range of mental, emotional, physical, and social problems.
Veterans may have trouble accomplishing normal day-to-day activities, you may be too depressed to leave your home or get out of bed, and sometimes you may even feel as if life isnt worth living .
Gerd Secondary To Knee Pain
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease can be rated secondary to Knee Pain and occurs when stomach acid repeatedly flows back into the esophagus, which is the tube connecting your mouth and stomach this common leads to heartburn.
GERD is a VA disability and can be rated at 10%, 30%, or 60%, depending upon the severity of your symptoms.
GERD is most often rated under CFR 38, Part 4, VA Schedule of Ratings, Diagnostic Code 7346, Hernia Hiatal.
Don’t Miss: Does Lidocaine Work For Nerve Pain
Arthritis And Mental Health
Learn more about the connection between arthritis, depression and anxiety, and how these conditions can make your arthritis worse.
Having any form of arthritis including osteoarthritis , rheumatoid arthritis , psoriatic arthritis , lupus, ankylosing spondylitis, gout or fibromyalgia can have a negative effect on your mental health. This most commonly manifests as depression or anxiety. It works the other way around, too. Mental health problems can worsen arthritis symptoms.
Defining Anxiety and Depression According to the American Psychological Association:
- Anxiety is characterized by feelings of tension, worry and irritability along with physical changes like increased blood pressure.
- Depression is characterized by sadness, a lack of interest in daily activities, weight loss or gain, sleeplessnessor excessive sleeping, lack of energy, inability to concentrate, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.
How Mental Health Affects Arthritis Rates of depression and anxiety in people with arthritis-related diseases vary depending on the population, the size of the study, and the measurement tools used. But data shows that the rates can be between two- and ten-times greater than the rates of the general population, depending on the type of arthritis.